Tissues which are found in the Bones are called as Bone marrow. These are mainly found in Breastbones, skull, hips. Bone Marrow’s stem cells produce blood cells in our body (WBC, RBC etc.).
The bone marrow looks like dark, thick blood. A patient who may be suffering from Leukemia, Lymphoma or Breast cancer needs to have a Bone marrow Transplant. The defects in Bone marrow can arise by high doses of Chemotherapy or radiation therapy as these treatments destroy normal cells and hence requires new cells.
A Defected Bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow cells. Collecting Bone marrow cells is like donating blood. A successful bone marrow transplant depends on various factors like the stage of disease, duration of disease and patient's medical condition at the time of Treatment.
Types of Bone Marrow Transplant:
Three main types of stem cells
Before the Treatment, The doctors will conduct a whole body test to understand the whole medical condition of the patient. These tests include Bone Marrow Biopsy, Blood test, Blood Pressure test etc.Patient’s Heart, Kidney and lungs functioning will also be diagnosed.
Next, the doctor will put a catheter in patient’s chest which allows doctors to supply antibiotics and blood products to flow through the bloodstream. This reduces the need for repeated insertion of a needle during surgery.
Then if the transplantation is Autologous then first the doctor will withdraw the bone marrow from the patient and if it is Allogenic then the doctor will withdraw it from the donor. Then the Withdrawn bone marrow is infused into a vein through an intravenous tube. It migrates to the large bone cavities (breast bone, skull, hips, ribs, and spine), and begins producing normal blood cells after several weeks.
Generally, people who have undergone any Transplant surgery are able to go home after 1-2 days from the surgery. Recovery may take weeks. You most likely can get back to light activity after 3 weeks and The normal blood cells will start to reproduce 6months-1 year post successful transplant.
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